Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density due to the lack of calcium in organism. As a result, bones become fragile and the structure of bone tissue becomes abnormal and finally, even minor falls or simple actions like sneezing or bumping into furniture may cause bones to break or crack. One out of three women and one out of twelve men suffer from this disease and the average number is getting 10 % higher every year.
- Diagnostics, bone densitometry scan, X-ray, BTC
- Laboratory tests
Digital densitometry LEXXOS –DMS the result of which is obtained in 1,5 sec
Drug therapy – choice of medication: hormone replacement therapy Alendronat, Risendronat, Etidronat, Reloksifen, PTH, Kalcitonin, Kalcitriol
Physical therapy – special individual programs and organized programs with exercises, MBST- a revolutionary therapy
Supplementation – Vitamin and mineral test
Preventing falls and related fractures – People with osteoporosis run a high risk of fractures caused by falls and this risk can be lowered thanks to a special program. During this program they improve their locomotor and general status.
Digital densitometry is justified in the following cases:
The disease is inherited or with persons having certain constitution predispositions:
- Women of frail physique
- Women with late or too early menopause
- Previous fractures
- Family predisposition
- Elderly age
Way of life
- Smoking, excess alcohol and coffee
- Insufficient milk or calcium intake
- Sedentary way of life and physical inactivity, non-exposure to the sun, repeated falls, lack of estrogen, barren women, lack of weight (BMI˂19)
- Extremely irregular menstrual cycles, early menopause
- Excessive physical activity (along with amenorrhea)
- Too much/or too small doze of thyroid hormone
- Long –term treatment with corticosteroids (more than 7.5 mg per day longer than 6 months)
- Anticoagulants, lithium, cyclosporine
- Agonists or antagonists releasing gonadotropin hormone, antacids (binding phosphate or containing aluminum), phenothiazine derivatives, some of the diuretics
There are also some diseases with high risks of osteoporosis
- Acromegaly, atrophy of the adrenal glands, Addison’s disease, Cushing disease
- Ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sarcoidosis
- Idiopathic scoliosis, malabsorption syndrome
- Endometriosis, primary and secondary hypogonadism, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, Iron overload,
- Hemochromatosis, hemophilia, lymphoma and leukemia
- Hyperparathyroidism, hypophosphatasia
- Insulin-dependent diabetes
- Multiple sclerosis, neurological problems
- Digestion problems, parenteral nutrition
- Liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis
- Thalassemia, thyrotoxicosis, pernicious anemia
Nutrition in preventing osteoporosis:
Reduce the amount and energy value of meals and increase the number of meals or eat smaller quantities, but several times. Replace red meat with fish and poultry and cut down the total amount of meat and meat products. Eat less salt and don’t eat salty food.
Increase the quantity of milk and dairy products as they are the best source of high quality proteins, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D. At any time of the year eat as plenty of fruits and vegetables as possible every day. Try to eat more nuts.
Fruits, vegetables, grains, milk and nuts should be on your daily menu.
Try to consume less sugar, caffeine, refreshing carbonated drinks and alcohol because they add to the bone loss. Drink plenty of non-carbonated liquids. Avoid animal fats and prepare food with olive oil. One should also pay attention to food preparation as vitamins and minerals are very sensitive to light, heat, water and air.